Traditionally, sulfur (S) deficiency was most common on high-yielding crops grown on irrigated sandy soils that are low in organic matter and subject to leaching. However, due to reduced S additions from the atmosphere (there is less S in the air now) and continued crop removal, an increasing number of finer-textured soils have shown S deficiency.
In recent years, sulfur deficiency in wheat has become common in many areas of Kansas, particularly in no-till wheat where cooler soil temperatures can slow S mineralization in the soil. Classic S deficiency symptoms, confirmed by soil and plant analysis, have been observed in many no-till wheat fields during periods of rapid growth in the spring. These observed deficiencies generally occur during periods of rapid growth prior to jointing or during stem elongation.
The photos below are a good representation of the problem. Generally, the S-deficient wheat is yellow and stunted (Figure 1-top photo), and the problem is found in patches in the field (Figure 1-bottom photo), especially in areas where there has been previous soil erosion or soil movement. Sulfur deficiency in growing crops is often mistaken for nitrogen (N) deficiency. However, unlike N deficiency where the older leaves show firing and yellowing, with S deficiency, the pale yellow symptoms of S deficiency often appear first on the younger or uppermost leaves. Wheat plants with S deficiency often eventually become uniformly chlorotic. The patchy S-deficient areas of the field are often found on hilltops or sideslopes where erosion has occurred and soil organic matter is reduced, or where leaching is more pronounced. In terraced or leveled fields, wheat in areas where topsoil was removed or significant cuts were made, also commonly shows symptoms.
Figure 1. Sulfur deficiency in wheat. Photos by Dorivar Ruiz Diaz, K-State Research and Extension.
The majority of S in soil is present in organic forms (requires mineralization to become plant available) in surface soils and as sulfate (SO42-), an inorganic form and plant available. Sulfate is relatively soluble, so it tends to leach down from the surface soil into the subsoil. In many of our Kansas soils it will accumulate in the B horizon (subsoil) in two forms:
- Some sulfate will be sorbed to clay surfaces and coatings similar to the processes whereby phosphates are sorbed, though sulfate will not be sorbed as strongly.
- Sulfate will also be present in the subsoil of many Kansas soils as gypsum.
A soil test for available sulfate in the soil profile is available. For proper interpretation of this test, soil organic matter, soil texture, the crop to be grown, and the expected yield level all need to be considered. Since sulfate is mobile, sampling to a 24-inch depth is important. Accurate estimates of S needs cannot be made from a surface sample alone. However, due to the relatively high demand for S during the rapid vegetative growth phase of wheat and relatively shallow rooting by the wheat crop at this time, the S measured in the deeper subsoil by the test may not be available to wheat in the early spring, especially where soils are still cold.
Sulfur deficiency in wheat has been showing up early in the spring, shortly after green-up, before organic S is mineralized from soil organic matter, and before wheat roots can grow into the subsoil to utilize sulfate accumulated there. Deficiencies of S are often difficult to identify because the paling in crop color is not always obvious. Wheat plants lacking S also may be stunted, thin-stemmed, and spindly. In the case of wheat and other cereal grains, maturity is delayed. Due to the slower growth and lack of good tillering, winter annual weed competition is also enhanced.
Many fields in north central and northeast Kansas now have an established history of S deficiency for wheat. In this situation, rather than waiting for symptoms to appear in the spring, farmers may want to consider a winter topdress application of S as a preventive measure.
There are many S-containing fertilizer materials. Several dry materials are available that can be blended with dry phosphorus or nitrogen fertilizers for winter/spring topdressing. Some of these products are best used in preplant applications, however.
- Elemental S (typically 90-95 percent S) is a dry material marketed by several manufacturers. Before it becomes available for plant uptake, elemental S must first be oxidized by soil microorganisms to sulfate-S and this can be a slow process when surface-applied. As a result, this material is well suited for preplant applications only. Elemental S is not suited for corrective applications to S-deficient wheat in the spring.
- Ammonium sulfate, (21-0-0-24S) is a dry material that is a good source of both N and available S. It has high acid-forming potential, however, and soil pH should be monitored. Ammonium sulfate is a good source to consider for both preplant or topdressing to correct existing sulfur deficiencies.
- Gypsum (analysis varies) is calcium sulfate, and is commonly available in a hydrated form containing 18.6 percent S. This material is commonly available in a granulated form that can be blended with other materials. Since it is a sulfate source, it would be immediately available, and is another good source for spring topdressing.
- New N-P-S products, such as Microessentials, 40-Rock, and others, are ammonium phosphate materials formulated with sulfur, and in some cases micronutrients such as zinc. In most of these products the sulfur is present as a combination of elemental-S and sulfate-S.
There are also liquid sources of sulfur fertilizers available.
- Ammonium thiosulfate, (12-0-0-26S) is the most popular S-containing product used in the fluid fertilizer industry, as it is compatible with N solutions and other complete liquid products.
- Potassium thiosulfate, (0-0-25-17S) is a clear liquid product that can be mixed with other liquid fertilizers.
Liquid and dry fertilizer sources can be applied in combination with N at topdressing this spring. However, is important to consider the potential plant availability of each S fertilizer source for this wheat growing season.
For more information see K-State publication MF 2264 “Sulfur in Kansas” at
For estimations of required application rates of S see K-State publication MF-2586 “Soil Test Interpretation and Fertilizer Recommendations” at http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/pubs/mf2586.pdf
(by Dorivar Ruiz Diaz, nutrient management specialist. K-State’s Agronomy eUpdate is available online at www.agronomy.k-state.edu.)