Parsons, Kansas —
Fusarium can also cause root rot of soybean. Infection is usually confined to roots and lower stems. The lower part of the taproot and the lateral root system may be discolored, deteriorated or completely destroyed. General roots show a nondescript brown discoloration and a dry, shrunken rot. Above ground portions of plants may appear off-color and stunted. Plants with severe Fusarium root rot may die prematurely.
Charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, may be more commonly recognized as a mid to late season disease on maturing soybean plants, but it can also occur early in the season on seedlings. Infected seedlings tend to show a reddish brown discoloration from the soil line up the stem. The discolored area changes from reddish brown to dark brown to black. Foliage may appear off color or begin to dry out and turn brown. If the growing point is killed, a twin stem plant may develop. Under hot, dry conditions, infected seedlings may die. Under cooler, wetter conditions, infected seedlings may survive but carry a latent infection. Then symptoms may reappear later in the season with hot, dry weather.
Once the crop has been planted, there is little that can be done to reduce incidence or severity of soybean seedling diseases. Additional stress from poor growing conditions, herbicide injury or other factors may compound problems with soybean seedling diseases. Prior to planting it is important to consider variety selection (especially in fields with a history of Phytophthora), fungicide seed treatment, crop rotation, seedbed preparation and conditions at planting. £